The unit is composed of a metallic cylindrical reaction chamber, with a central titanium electrode. Less than 2 amps of electrical current is passed from the central anode to the cylindrical cathode which causes a high pH in the vicinity of the cathode. High pH causes scale to be deposited in the reactor.
The water is not soft at the outlet of the ESR, but the scale forming ion content has been reduced to a level that prevents precipitation in the RO membranes.
The ESR will precipitate all scale forming ions, not just magnesium and calcium but any other ions that are susceptible to dropping out of the liquid at high pH e.g. Silica, Ferum, Manganese etc.
In addition to the scale precipitation reaction, free chlorine is generated in the reactors:
Cl– + H+ → HCl
HCl + HCl → Cl2 + H2
The gaseous H2 is immediately dissolved back into the water and is not released.
The Cl2 is generated in small amounts, and serves to control bio-growth in the ESR without added chemicals.